TitleBinding of MutS mismatch repair protein to DNA containing UV photoproducts, "mismatched" opposite Watson--Crick and novel nucleotides, in different DNA sequence contexts.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsHoffman PD, Wang H, Lawrence CW, Iwai S, Hanaoka F, Hays JB
JournalDNA Repair (Amst)
Date Published2005 Aug 15
Adenosine Triphosphatases, Amino Acid Sequence, Bacterial Proteins, Base Pair Mismatch, Base Sequence, DNA, DNA Repair, DNA-Binding Proteins, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, MutS DNA Mismatch-Binding Protein, Nucleotides, Protein Binding, Ultraviolet Rays

Mismatch-repair (MMR) systems suppress mutation via correction of DNA replication errors (base-mispairs) and responses to mutagenic DNA lesions. Selective binding of mismatched or damaged DNA by MutS-homolog proteins-bacterial MutS, eukaryotic MSH2.MSH6 (MutSalpha) and MSH2.MSH3-initiates mismatch-correction pathways and responses to lesions, and may cumulatively increase discrimination at downstream steps. MutS-homolog binding selectivity and the well-known but poorly understood effects of DNA-sequence contexts on recognition may thus be primary determinants of MMR specificity and efficiency. MMR processes that modulate UV mutagenesis might begin with selective binding by MutS homologs of "mismatched" T[CPD]T/AG and T[6--4]T/AG photoproducts, reported previously for hMutSalpha and described here for E. coli MutS protein. If MMR suppresses UV mutagenesis by acting directly on pre-mutagenic products of replicative bypass, mismatched photoproducts should be recognized in most DNA-sequence contexts. In three of four contexts tested here (three substantially different), T[CPD]T/AG was bound only slightly better by MutS than was T[CPD]T/AA or homoduplex DNA; only one of two contexts tested promoted selective binding of T[6--4]T/AG. Although the T:G pairs in T[CPD]T/AG and T/G both adopt wobble conformations, MutS bound T/G well in all contexts (K(1/2) 2.1--2.9 nM). Thus, MutS appears to select the two mismatches by different mechanisms. NMR analyses elsewhere suggest that in the (highly distorted) T[6--4]T/AG a forked H-bond between O2 of the 3' thymine and the ring 1-imino and exocyclic 2-amino guanine protons stabilizes a novel planar structure not possible in T[6--4]T/AA. Replacement of G by purines lacking one (inosine, 2-aminopurine) or both (nebularine) protons markedly reduced or eliminated selective MutS binding, as predicted. Previous studies and the work here, taken together, suggest that in only about half of DNA sequence contexts could MutS (and presumably MutSalpha) selectively bind mismatched UV photoproducts and directly suppress UV mutagenesis.

Alternate JournalDNA Repair (Amst.)
PubMed ID15996534
Grant ListES009848 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States